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如何写论文开头introduction及范文

时间:2020-03-16 18:11来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:hongcin 点击:
“众所周知的难题”布局Layout of "well known problems" “被忽视了的难题”型布局 "Neglected problems" layout “发现了新的难题”"New problems found" “难题其实没被解决”"The problem is not solved" “补充解释
一个导言是写文章的关键。introduction是读者对你如何用英语写的第一印象,一个成功的介绍可以为一个好的文章奠定坚实的基础,也就是说,一个好的故事。

首先,一个好的介绍应该包括背景,topic,告诉老师你要去埃西,并提出自己的意见,使读者知道你想对他们说什么,您想解释什么问题,只有这样才能引起老师的兴趣,使他更加有耐心和耐心。阅读你的文章的兴趣。

如何写论文开头introduction对于留学生而言是一个很重要的课题,写好一个优秀的introduction对于你的论文是一个很吸睛的开始,留学生写好论文的introduction可以让导师更加注意你的论文,从而获得更高的分数和更好的印象。

An introduction is the key to writing an article. Introduction is the first impression of readers on how to write in English. A successful introduction can lay a solid foundation for a good article, that is, a good story.

First of all, a good introduction should include the background, topic, tell the teacher that you are going to Essy, and put forward your own opinions, so that the readers can know what you want to say to them and what problems you want to explain. Only in this way can the teacher's interest be aroused, and he can be more patient and patient. Interest in reading your article.

How to write an introduction is a very important topic for foreign students. A good introduction is a very attractive start for your paper. A good introduction for foreign students can make the tutor pay more attention to your paper, so as to get a higher score and a better impression.

1. .“众所周知的难题”布局Layout of "well known problems"
 
Such articles are generally awesome: we all know that there is a A phenomenon, but the existing theories are not enough to explain. Today, our paper is to build a new theory / modify an old theory, so that this new framework can not only explain what the old theory can explain, but also explain what the old theory can not explain.
Example: M. Olson's "logic of collective action" solves the problem why rational people contribute to public things even when they know that someone will get something for nothing.
Challenge: Generally speaking, everyone agrees with this problem, but there is no consensus on how to solve it / to what extent it has been solved. So it's important to know which group of readers are the default readers of your thesis.
 
2.“被忽视了的难题”型布局 "Neglected problems" layout
 
In fact, many times, we don't realize that some things are a problem. So some articles are arranged like this: everyone sees phenomenon x every day. I know you are used to it, but if you look carefully, you will find that there are problems to be solved, because our existing theory can not explain X.
For example, Coase asked suddenly at that time: where is the company coming from the existing market? The company has existed for a long time, but there are not many people asking about the reasons for its existence. If we think deeply about "there are costs in using the market", there will be fewer.
This kind of article is likely to make outstanding contributions, but it is also very difficult to write. For example, numerous studies have shown that the behavior of the market is far from that of "efficient market hypothesis" (EMH), but the defenders of EMH will fight back. So it's not easy to defeat EMH.
 
3. “发现了新的难题”"New problems found"
 
"We all thought it would happen like this before, but we may be wrong. Now I find a new empirical phenomenon x, which is contradictory to the existing theory, but has nothing to do with it. I have built a new theory to explain X ". This layout generally appears in case studies, but there are also difficulties.
Because it comes from one case or several cases, others can doubt whether it is a case or a special case. Moreover, ordinary authors may not be familiar with the background of this empirical phenomenon, so when reading it, they may not think it is a big deal, so they need to summarize the general significance of their own cases.
 
4. “难题其实没被解决”"The problem is not solved"
 
This kind of layout is relatively rare. In essence, it means that "you think this problem has been solved, but in fact it has not. I'm going to tell you what's going on in this article.". For example: we all know that decision makers prefer high-grade products / organizations, because there are many theories in this field, but they are not. The premise of these theories is so strict that it is impossible to realize them in real life. For example, each individual uses the same selection criteria and those tastes are public knowledge.
This kind of article is not easy to write. First, you have to educate your readers, "in fact, you don't understand the theory very well.". Second, you have to tell the readers, because these understandings are not deep, such a theory will lead to some problems that they didn't realize before.
 
5. “补充解释”"Supplementary interpretation"
 
This kind of routine doesn't impact the existing theories fiercely, but provides a new angle. The general layout is that "there are many theories that can explain this phenomenon, but our new theory is not bad at all, or even better at some extent, so the existing theory is not the only one to explain this phenomenon.".
For example, strang & Macy's "in search of excellence" takes books like "in pursuit of excellence" as an example to describe the underlying principle that a tool that is not really useful may reach a large number of dissemination, which complements the existing theoretical explanation.
 
Introduction samples:

论文introduction


论文introduction


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