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Summary怎么写?Summary格式范文3例

时间:2020-02-24 13:01来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:tessia 点击:
Summary在本科生和研究生的写作作业中非常普遍,在许多课程中,教授和指导老师会要求我们在完成一些文章阅读后进行文章总结。通过Summary(总结),教授能够了解到我们是否有认真阅读并真正

Summary在本科生和研究生的写作作业中非常普遍,在许多课程中,教授和指导老师会要求我们在完成一些文章阅读后进行文章总结。通过Summary(总结),教授能够了解到我们是否有认真阅读并真正理解了文章内容。

Summary的准备工作:
1.仔细阅读文章,理解文意
2.列出文章大纲和主要内容。
3.不看文章,拟写Summary的草稿。
4.撰写时注意要使用paraphrase(用自己的话来表达),不能照抄原文。仅在引用原文不可替换和必要时我们才能引用原文, 并且要注意引用时在原文短语两边加上“引号”。
5.Summary草稿的长度大约是我们计划或要求长度的四分之一。

Summary的注意事项:
1. 文章一开始交代文章类型,标题,作者和要点,用一般现在时写作。
示例:In the feature article "Four Kinds of Reading," the author, Donald Hall, explains his opinion about different types of reading.
2.将写好的大纲和原文比对,确保覆盖了所有重点。
3.切勿将自己的任何想法,观点或解释写入Summary。谨慎选择适当的单词。
4.使用“ Summarizing Language”。通过在文章多出运用诸如 “the article claims”, “the author suggests”等短语提醒读者,这是一个Summary。(下文有详细介绍)
4.在Summary的头部写下完整的bibliographic citation(著录信息)。 完整的bibliographic citation至少要包含作品名称,作者和出处。 使用APA格式。

summary

以下我们来看具体操作以及2个模板和3个范文:

1. 找出文章主旨 Identify the Main Idea or Topic
The aim of an article is to convey a certain idea or topic through the use of exposition and logic.
In a summary, you want to identify the main idea of the article and put this information into your own words. To do this, you must be willing to read the article several times. On the first reading, try to gain a general notion of what the article is trying to say. Once you've done this write down your initial impression. This is most likely the thesis, or main idea, of the article. Also, be sure to include the author's first and last name and the title of the article in your notation for later reference.
Example: In the article "Why Two Best Friends Doesn't Work," author Cassandra Grimes argues that most teenage girls can't get along in groups of more than two.
When trying to identify the central idea, you should ask yourself, "Why was this essay written and published?" Clues to help determine this include the following.

How to Identify the Main Idea of an Article

  1. Gather information from the title.
  2. Identify the place it was published, as this can help you determine the intended audience.
  3. Determine the date of publication.
  4. Determine the type of essay. (Is it expository, argumentative, literary, scholarly?)
  5. Take note of the tone of the piece.
  6. Identify certain notions or arguments that seem to be repeated throughout.
Applying these methods of identification, let's take a look at the article "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson. We can assume the subject of the article from the title. Upon further examination, it becomes clear that the author is arguing that new research suggests the best cure for diabetes is the surgical solution of a gastric bypass.
Example: "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson records a recent discovery by researchers that people who have bypass surgery for weight control are also instantly cured of diabetes. Since rising diabetic rates and obesity has become a worldwide concern, the article provides a startling but controversial potential solution.
Now that we have identified the main idea of the article, we can move onto the next step.
 
2. 找出主要论点 Identify Important Arguments
At this point in the preparation process, you should read the article again. This time, read more carefully. Look specifically for the supporting arguments. Some tips on how to identify the important arguments of an article are listed below.

How to Identify Important Arguments in an Article
  1. Read on a paper copy or use a computer program that lets you make annotations.
  2. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph. (If no one sentence tells the main concept, then write a summary of the main point in the margin.)
  3. Write that sentence in your own words on the side of the page or on another piece of paper.
  4. When you finish the article, read all the topic sentences you marked or wrote down.
  5. In your own words, rewrite those main ideas.
  6. Use complete sentences with good transition words.
  7. Be sure you don't use the same words, phrases, or sentence structure as the original.
  8. You may find you need to leave out some of the unimportant details.
  9. Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.
In short, you want to boil the article down to its main, supporting arguments. Let everything else fall away, and what you are left with is an argument or an opinion, and the arguments that support it.

3. 进行写作 Write Your Summary
Your summary should start with the author’s name and the title of the work. Here are several ways to do this correctly:

Introduction Sentence Examples for an Article Summary
In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains ...
John Wood, in "Cats Don't Dance," explains ...
According to John Wood in "Cats Don't Dance" ...
As John Wood vividly elucidates in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" ...
John Wood claims in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" that ...
Combine the thesis of the article with the title and author into your first sentence of the summary. Reference the following sentence as an example.
In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains that in spite of the fact that cats are popular pets who seem to like us, felines are not really good at any activities that require cooperation with someone else, whether that is dancing or sharing.
If possible, your first sentence should summarize the article. The rest of your summary should cover some of the central concepts used to support the thesis. Be sure to restate these ideas in your own words, and to make your summary as short and concise as possible. Condense sentences and leave out unimportant details and examples. Stick to the important points.

如何引用 How to Quote the Author of an Article
When you refer to the author for the first time, you always use their full name. When you refer to the author after that, you always use their last name. The following examples show how to use the author's name in an article summary after you have already introduced them.
Johnson comments ...
According to Wood's perspective ...
As Jones implies in the story about ...
Toller criticizes...
In conclusion, Kessler elaborates about ...
You don't need to use an author's title (Dr., Professor, or Mr. and Mrs.), but it does help to add their credentials to show they are an authoritative source. The sentences below show ways to do this.
In "Global Warming isn't Real," Steven Collins, a professor at the University of Michigan, claims that ...
New York Times critic Johann Bachman argues in "Global Warming is the Next Best Thing for the Earth" that ...
If you are discussing the ideas of the author, you always need to make it clear that you are reciting their ideas, not your own.

How to Introduce the Ideas of the Author in an Article Summary
  • Use author tags
  • Use mentions of "the article" or "the text"
  • Add the page number that the information is found on in parenthesis at the end of the sentence
引用选词 Using Author Tags
In writing your summary, you need to clearly state the name of the author and the name of the article, essay, book, or other source. The sentence below is a great example of how to do this.
According to Mary Johnson in her essay, "Cats Make Good Pets," the feline domestic companion is far superior to the canine one.
You also need to continue to make it clear to the reader when you are talking about the author's ideas. To do this, use "author tags," which are either the last name of the author or a pronoun (he or she) to show you are still discussing that person's ideas.
Also, try to make use of different verbs and adverbs. Your choice of author tag verbs and adverbs can contribute to the way you analyze the article. Certain words will create a specific tone. See the tables for a selection of different word choices.

如何选动词


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